It.bread.o Vietnam in the 8th and 9th centuries. 30 As Vietnam began trading with Japan and China around the 9th century, it was influenced by their : 10.1093/rheumatology/ken161 . Needles may be manipulated in various ways, including spinning, techniques might be utilized which aim to “influence” the de-qi; for example, by certain manipulation the de-qi sensation allegedly can be conducted from the needling site towards more distant sites of the body. Japanese reprint by Suharaya Heisuke around assumed reflex zones of the hand..>In.999, the National enter for Complementary and Association of Canada are used in provinces without government regulation. 287 Regulation in the US began in the 1970s 301 in California, which was eventually followed by every state but Wyoming and Idaho. 299 302 Licensing requirements vary greatly from state to state. G..9 :71 However, it is more likely that stones were used for Acupuncture other medical purposes, such as puncturing a growth to drain its pus . 27 30 The Mawangdui texts, which are believed to be from the 2nd century BC, mention the use of pointed stones to open abscesses, and moxibustion, but not for acupuncture. 28 It is also speculated that these stones may have been used for blood-letting, due to the ancient Chinese belief that illnesses were caused by demons within the body that could be killed or released. 269 It is likely blood-letting was an antecedent to acupuncture. 30 According to historians Lu Gwei-djen and Joseph Needham, there is substantial evidence that acupuncture may have begun around 600 BC. 29 Some hieroglyphs and pictographs from that era suggests acupuncture and moxibustion were practice. 270 However, historians Gwei-djen and Needham said it was unlikely a needle could be made out of the materials available in China during this time period. 29 :71-72 It is possible Bronze was used for early acupuncture needles.
Tin, copper, gold and silver are also possibilities, though they are considered less likely, or to have been used in fewer cases. 29 :69 If acupuncture was practice during the Cang dynasty 1766 to 1122 BC, organic materials like thorns, sharpened bones, or bamboo may have been used. 29 :70 Once methods for producing steel were discovered, it would replace all other materials, since it could be used to create a very fine, but sturdy needles. 29 :74 Gwei-djen and Needham noted that are still unable to find a shred of evidence to support the existence of meridians or C'i”, 21 “The traditional principles of acupuncture are deeply flawed, as there is no evidence at all to demonstrate the existence of Ch'i or meridians” 22 and “As yin and yang, acupuncture points and meridians are not a reality, but merely the product of an ancient Chinese philosophy”. 23 Tyne, D.; Shenker, N. The World Health Organization recommends that before being licensed or certified, an acupuncturist receive 200 hours of specialized training if they are a physician and 2,500 hours for non-physicians; acupuncture”.